A. Problem set #3 it has been posted and is due Tuesday, 15 November


 Adam Black
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Lecture 9: Propositional Logic I Philosophy & 3 November 2016 O Rourke & Gibson I. Administrative A. Problem set #3 it has been posted and is due Tuesday, 15 November B. I am working on the group papers right now and should have them ready to return to you on Thursday C. Bias readings D. Questions? II. Logic and Form A. What is logic? 1. Logic as a subject matter is the study of logics, understood as models of acceptable inference patterns 2. These models have various characteristics: a. They focus on distinguishing patterns of acceptable reasoning (or argument) from patterns that are not acceptable, relative to a specification of elements that are the focus of the logic they make sense out of what follows when these elements are in play b. The model will provide systematic standards for determining when a piece of reasoning is acceptable, e.g., when it is valid, if deductive. c. These rules will involve the content of the elements but reduce the rest of the content to formal schema i. The goal is to create a model that is as general as possible The content of the elements can be specified functionally, e.g., conjunction in propositional logic 1
2 i Bottom line: the emphasis is on form over content (9.1) B. What is form? 1. Form is contrasted with content, and is understood at the level of propositions a. The content of a proposition is what that proposition is about, and it typically involves things (concrete or abstract) and their properties b. The form of a proposition is the structured way in which the content elements are related, and it is closely associated with the syntax of the sentence (or sentences) used to express the proposition 2. The form of a complex proposition (i.e., a proposition that comprises other constituent propositions) is indicated by the elements in its expression that organize the constituent propositions along with its syntactical structure 3. One can access the form by replacing all of the propositional expressions (i.e., all of the parts of the sentence that individually have truth values) with symbols; what elements remain of the original expression and the way they structure the symbols constitute the form of the proposition III. Propositional Logic A. Propositional Form (9.2) 1. Propositions are chunks of meaning that can be evaluated for truth and falsity they are claims a. They can be simple (e.g., It is cold outside ), in which case there is only one part of the proposition that has a truth value b. Or they can be complex (e.g., It is cold outside and it is windy also ), in which case there is more than one part that has a truth value c. It isn t always clear whether you are dealing with a simple proposition or a complex one; nor is it always clear what the character is of a complex proposition 2
3 2. One way to get at the form of a proposition is to replace the parts that are true or false with variable symbols, e.g., p, q, r a. This can be done at different levels any sentence at all, no matter how complex, can be replaced by p b. You can also dig down into the substructure of a sentence, if it is made up of parts that are themselves sentences. When doing this, be sure to leave in the connecting terms (e.g., and, or, not, if then ), and don t fiddle with the overall order c. Be sure to replace different propositions with different variables; that is, do not use the same variable to represent different propositions d. So It is cold outside would become p and It is cold outside and it is windy also would become p and q. 3. One can also go in the other direction: given a propositional form, one can replace the variables with propositional expressions a. Here again, one need not take a propositional variable to stand for a simple proposition; thus, one could replace the variable p with a complex proposition since, after all, the complex proposition does itself express a single truth value b. Further, going in this direction one can replace different propositional variables with the same proposition i. So p and q can be It is cold outside and it is cold outside Compare: x + y = 4, where x = y = Together, you get the following rule: Different variables may be replaced with the same proposition, but different propositions may not be replaced with the same variable (p. 116) 5. Examples: Write out three propositional forms for the following sentences: a. Trump is in the race, and Cruz is in the race, and Kasich is in the race. b. He s lucky and he s good or he s good. (9.3, 9.4) 3
4 B. Validity, Invalidity, and Propositional Form 1. An argument form is valid if and only if it has no substitution instances in which the premises are all true and the conclusion is false (120) 2. "An argument is valid if it is an instance of a valid argument form (120) a. Thus, all arguments that are instances of a valid argument form are valid. b. This is so because all arguments that are instances of valid argument forms are arguments that cannot have false conclusions if their premises are all true. 3. Not all valid arguments are valid by virtue of their logical form. For example, P1: The ball is red all over. C: Therefore, the ball isn t blue. 4. Thus: Valid arguments Instances of valid argument forms 5. Examples a. Donald owns a tower in New York and a palace in Atlantic City. Therefore, Donald owns a palace in Atlantic City. b. Donald owns a tower in New York. Therefore, Donald owns a tower in New York and a casino in Las Vegas. c. Donald owns a tower in New York. Therefore, Donald owns a tower in New York and Donald owns a tower in New York. (9.5, 9.6) 4
5 C. Propositional Connectives 1. These are devices, often terms, that can be used to build more complex propositions out of simpler ones. We consider several of these. 2. Conjunction Conjunction  & and, but, moreover, hence, therefore, etc. conjoins two propositions; the complex proposition is true just in case both of the conjoined propositions are true propositional conjunction vs. nonpropositional conjunction it isn t always clear which of these you re dealing with a. Examples: i. A Catholic priest married John and Mary. The winning presidential candidate rarely loses both New York and California. 3. Disjunction Disjunction v or others? disjoins two propositions; the complex proposition is true just in case at least one of the disjoined propositions is true inclusive disjunction from exclusive disjunction, where the latter is the soup or salad or; in here, we will interpret disjunction inclusively see handout 5
6 4. Negation Negation ~ not, un, it is not the case that, etc. operates on a single proposition and negates it, where the complex proposition is true just in case the negated proposition is false not can operate at different locations in a sentence it can also be involved in a sentence in a way that is not expressible in propositional logic a. Method for identifying nonpropositional negation: i. You can get at whether you are dealing with propositional negation by taking the negation term out and then tacking It is not the case that onto the front of the proposition If the result means the same as the original, it is propositional negation; otherwise, it is not b. Examples of nonpropositional negation: i. It might not be cold tomorrow. I believe that I won t finish this lecture on time. 5. Conditional (9.7, 9.8) Conditional if then is the primary counterpart; also, provided and only if see handout operates on two propositions, where the complex proposition is true just in case the antecedent (the if part) is false or the consequence (the then part) is true this can be defended (a) by equivalence argument (see handout) or (b) by truth tables There are different types of conditionals in English: indicative, subjunctive, conditional imperatives, conditional questions, conditional promises, etc.; we focus on indicative conditionals here it can also be involved in a sentence in a way that is not expressible in propositional logic 6
What are TruthTables and What Are They For?
PY114: Work Obscenely Hard Week 9 (Meeting 7) 30 November, 2010 What are TruthTables and What Are They For? 0. Business Matters: The last marked homework of term will be due on Monday, 6 December, at
More informationLogic Appendix: More detailed instruction in deductive logic
Logic Appendix: More detailed instruction in deductive logic Standardizing and Diagramming In Reason and the Balance we have taken the approach of using a simple outline to standardize short arguments,
More informationC. Problem set #1 due today, now, on the desk. B. More of an art than a science the key things are: 4.
Lecture 4: The Language of Argument Philosophy 130 September 22 and 27, 2016 O Rourke & Gibson I. Administrative A. Questions? B. Read Ch. 3 & pp. 9094 C. Problem set #1 due today, now, on the desk II.
More information2. Refutations can be stronger or weaker.
Lecture 8: Refutation Philosophy 130 October 25 & 27, 2016 O Rourke I. Administrative A. Schedule see syllabus as well! B. Questions? II. Refutation A. Arguments are typically used to establish conclusions.
More informationC. Exam #1 comments on difficult spots; if you have questions about this, please let me know. D. Discussion of extra credit opportunities
Lecture 8: Refutation Philosophy 130 March 19 & 24, 2015 O Rourke I. Administrative A. Roll B. Schedule C. Exam #1 comments on difficult spots; if you have questions about this, please let me know D. Discussion
More informationAn Introduction to. Formal Logic. Second edition. Peter Smith, February 27, 2019
An Introduction to Formal Logic Second edition Peter Smith February 27, 2019 Peter Smith 2018. Not for reposting or recirculation. Comments and corrections please to ps218 at cam dot ac dot uk 1 What
More informationINTERMEDIATE LOGIC Glossary of key terms
1 GLOSSARY INTERMEDIATE LOGIC BY JAMES B. NANCE INTERMEDIATE LOGIC Glossary of key terms This glossary includes terms that are defined in the text in the lesson and on the page noted. It does not include
More informationArtificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems. Prof. Deepak Khemani. Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems Prof. Deepak Khemani Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module 02 Lecture  03 So in the last
More informationPart II: How to Evaluate Deductive Arguments
Part II: How to Evaluate Deductive Arguments Week 4: Propositional Logic and Truth Tables Lecture 4.1: Introduction to deductive logic Deductive arguments = presented as being valid, and successful only
More informationToday s Lecture 1/28/10
Chapter 7.1! Symbolizing English Arguments! 5 Important Logical Operators!The Main Logical Operator Today s Lecture 1/28/10 Quiz State from memory (closed book and notes) the five famous valid forms and
More informationUC Berkeley, Philosophy 142, Spring 2016
Logical Consequence UC Berkeley, Philosophy 142, Spring 2016 John MacFarlane 1 Intuitive characterizations of consequence Modal: It is necessary (or apriori) that, if the premises are true, the conclusion
More informationChapter 8  Sentential Truth Tables and Argument Forms
Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall Stetson University Chapter 8  Sentential ruth ables and Argument orms 8.1 Introduction he truthvalue of a given truthfunctional compound proposition depends
More informationLogic: A Brief Introduction
Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall, Stetson University PART III  Symbolic Logic Chapter 7  Sentential Propositions 7.1 Introduction What has been made abundantly clear in the previous discussion
More informationCHAPTER 1 A PROPOSITIONAL THEORY OF ASSERTIVE ILLOCUTIONARY ARGUMENTS OCTOBER 2017
CHAPTER 1 A PROPOSITIONAL THEORY OF ASSERTIVE ILLOCUTIONARY ARGUMENTS OCTOBER 2017 Man possesses the capacity of constructing languages, in which every sense can be expressed, without having an idea how
More informationPhilosophy 1100: Introduction to Ethics. Critical Thinking Lecture 1. Background Material for the Exercise on Validity
Philosophy 1100: Introduction to Ethics Critical Thinking Lecture 1 Background Material for the Exercise on Validity Reasons, Arguments, and the Concept of Validity 1. The Concept of Validity Consider
More informationLogic Book Part 1! by Skylar Ruloff!
Logic Book Part 1 by Skylar Ruloff Contents Introduction 3 I Validity and Soundness 4 II Argument Forms 10 III Counterexamples and Categorical Statements 15 IV Strength and Cogency 21 2 Introduction This
More informationPART III  Symbolic Logic Chapter 7  Sentential Propositions
Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall, Stetson University 7.1 Introduction PART III  Symbolic Logic Chapter 7  Sentential Propositions What has been made abundantly clear in the previous discussion
More informationSemantic Entailment and Natural Deduction
Semantic Entailment and Natural Deduction Alice Gao Lecture 6, September 26, 2017 Entailment 1/55 Learning goals Semantic entailment Define semantic entailment. Explain subtleties of semantic entailment.
More informationIllustrating Deduction. A Didactic Sequence for Secondary School
Illustrating Deduction. A Didactic Sequence for Secondary School Francisco Saurí Universitat de València. Dpt. de Lògica i Filosofia de la Ciència Cuerpo de Profesores de Secundaria. IES Vilamarxant (España)
More informationThere are two common forms of deductively valid conditional argument: modus ponens and modus tollens.
INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL THINKING Lecture 6: Two types of argument and their role in science: Deduction and induction 1. Deductive arguments Arguments that claim to provide logically conclusive grounds
More informationMCQ IN TRADITIONAL LOGIC. 1. Logic is the science of A) Thought. B) Beauty. C) Mind. D) Goodness
MCQ IN TRADITIONAL LOGIC FOR PRIVATE REGISTRATION TO BA PHILOSOPHY PROGRAMME 1. Logic is the science of. A) Thought B) Beauty C) Mind D) Goodness 2. Aesthetics is the science of .
More informationPHI 1500: Major Issues in Philosophy
PHI 1500: Major Issues in Philosophy Session 3 September 9 th, 2015 All About Arguments (Part II) 1 A common theme linking many fallacies is that they make unwarranted assumptions. An assumption is a claim
More informationHANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.)
1 HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) I. ARGUMENT RECOGNITION Important Concepts An argument is a unit of reasoning that attempts to prove that a certain idea is true by
More informationA BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC FOR METAPHYSICIANS
A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC FOR METAPHYSICIANS 0. Logic, Probability, and Formal Structure Logic is often divided into two distinct areas, inductive logic and deductive logic. Inductive logic is concerned
More informationLogic for Computer Science  Week 1 Introduction to Informal Logic
Logic for Computer Science  Week 1 Introduction to Informal Logic Ștefan Ciobâcă November 30, 2017 1 Propositions A proposition is a statement that can be true or false. Propositions are sometimes called
More informationBasic Concepts and Skills!
Basic Concepts and Skills! Critical Thinking tests rationales,! i.e., reasons connected to conclusions by justifying or explaining principles! Why do CT?! Answer: Opinions without logical or evidential
More informationLogic & Proofs. Chapter 3 Content. Sentential Logic Semantics. Contents: Studying this chapter will enable you to:
Sentential Logic Semantics Contents: TruthValue Assignments and TruthFunctions TruthValue Assignments TruthFunctions Introduction to the TruthLab TruthDefinition Logical Notions TruthTrees Studying
More informationReductio ad Absurdum, Modulation, and Logical Forms. Miguel LópezAstorga 1
International Journal of Philosophy and Theology June 25, Vol. 3, No., pp. 5965 ISSN: 2333575 (Print), 23335769 (Online) Copyright The Author(s). All Rights Reserved. Published by American Research
More informationStudy Guides. Chapter 1  Basic Training
Study Guides Chapter 1  Basic Training Argument: A group of propositions is an argument when one or more of the propositions in the group is/are used to give evidence (or if you like, reasons, or grounds)
More informationILLOCUTIONARY ORIGINS OF FAMILIAR LOGICAL OPERATORS
ILLOCUTIONARY ORIGINS OF FAMILIAR LOGICAL OPERATORS 1. ACTS OF USING LANGUAGE Illocutionary logic is the logic of speech acts, or language acts. Systems of illocutionary logic have both an ontological,
More informationLecture 1: Validity & Soundness
Lecture 1: Validity & Soundness 1 Goals Today Introduce one of our central topics: validity and soundness, and its connection to one of our primary course goals, namely: learning how to evaluate arguments
More informationLOGIC ANTHONY KAPOLKA FYF 1019/3/2010
LOGIC ANTHONY KAPOLKA FYF 1019/3/2010 LIBERALLY EDUCATED PEOPLE......RESPECT RIGOR NOT SO MUCH FOR ITS OWN SAKE BUT AS A WAY OF SEEKING TRUTH. LOGIC PUZZLE COOPER IS MURDERED. 3 SUSPECTS: SMITH, JONES,
More information1 Clarion Logic Notes Chapter 4
1 Clarion Logic Notes Chapter 4 Summary Notes These are summary notes so that you can really listen in class and not spend the entire time copying notes. These notes will not substitute for reading the
More informationHANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.)
1 HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) I. ARGUMENT RECOGNITION Important Concepts An argument is a unit of reasoning that attempts to prove that a certain idea is true by
More informationLogicola Truth Evaluation Exercises
Logicola Truth Evaluation Exercises The Logicola exercises for Ch. 6.3 concern truth evaluations, and in 6.4 this complicated to include unknown evaluations. I wanted to say a couple of things for those
More informationComments on Truth at A World for Modal Propositions
Comments on Truth at A World for Modal Propositions Christopher Menzel Texas A&M University March 16, 2008 Since Arthur Prior first made us aware of the issue, a lot of philosophical thought has gone into
More informationPhilosophy 220. Truth Functional Properties Expressed in terms of Consistency
Philosophy 220 Truth Functional Properties Expressed in terms of Consistency The concepts of truthfunctional logic: Truthfunctional: Truth Falsity Indeterminacy Entailment Validity Equivalence Consistency
More informationSHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
Exam Name SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Draw a Venn diagram for the given sets. In words, explain why you drew one set as a subset of
More informationELEMENTS OF LOGIC. 1.1 What is Logic? Arguments and Propositions
Handout 1 ELEMENTS OF LOGIC 1.1 What is Logic? Arguments and Propositions In our day to day lives, we find ourselves arguing with other people. Sometimes we want someone to do or accept something as true
More information(Refer Slide Time 03:00)
Artificial Intelligence Prof. Anupam Basu Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture  15 Resolution in FOPL In the last lecture we had discussed about
More informationHANDBOOK. IV. Argument Construction Determine the Ultimate Conclusion Construct the Chain of Reasoning Communicate the Argument 13
1 HANDBOOK TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Argument Recognition 2 II. Argument Analysis 3 1. Identify Important Ideas 3 2. Identify Argumentative Role of These Ideas 4 3. Identify Inferences 5 4. Reconstruct the
More informationFrom Necessary Truth to Necessary Existence
Prequel for Section 4.2 of Defending the Correspondence Theory Published by PJP VII, 1 From Necessary Truth to Necessary Existence Abstract I introduce new details in an argument for necessarily existing
More informationChapter 3: Basic Propositional Logic. Based on Harry Gensler s book For CS2209A/B By Dr. Charles Ling;
Chapter 3: Basic Propositional Logic Based on Harry Gensler s book For CS2209A/B By Dr. Charles Ling; cling@csd.uwo.ca The Ultimate Goals Accepting premises (as true), is the conclusion (always) true?
More informationSYLLOGISTIC LOGIC CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS
Prof. C. Byrne Dept. of Philosophy SYLLOGISTIC LOGIC Syllogistic logic is the original form in which formal logic was developed; hence it is sometimes also referred to as Aristotelian logic after Aristotle,
More informationLogic: The Science that Evaluates Arguments
Logic: The Science that Evaluates Arguments Logic teaches us to develop a system of methods and principles to use as criteria for evaluating the arguments of others to guide us in constructing arguments
More informationPrior, Berkeley, and the Barcan Formula. James Levine Trinity College, Dublin
Prior, Berkeley, and the Barcan Formula James Levine Trinity College, Dublin In his 1955 paper Berkeley in Logical Form, A. N. Prior argues that in his so called master argument for idealism, Berkeley
More informationCritical Thinking 5.7 Validity in inductive, conductive, and abductive arguments
5.7 Validity in inductive, conductive, and abductive arguments REMEMBER as explained in an earlier section formal language is used for expressing relations in abstract form, based on clear and unambiguous
More informationCourses providing assessment data PHL 202. Semester/Year
1 Department/Program 20122016 Assessment Plan Department: Philosophy Directions: For each department/program student learning outcome, the department will provide an assessment plan, giving detailed information
More informationSensitivity hasn t got a Heterogeneity Problem  a Reply to Melchior
DOI 10.1007/s114060169782z Sensitivity hasn t got a Heterogeneity Problem  a Reply to Melchior Kevin Wallbridge 1 Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 # The
More informationScott Soames: Understanding Truth
Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Vol. LXV, No. 2, September 2002 Scott Soames: Understanding Truth MAlTHEW MCGRATH Texas A & M University Scott Soames has written a valuable book. It is unmatched
More informationLecture 3. I argued in the previous lecture for a relationist solution to Frege's puzzle, one which
1 Lecture 3 I argued in the previous lecture for a relationist solution to Frege's puzzle, one which posits a semantic difference between the pairs of names 'Cicero', 'Cicero' and 'Cicero', 'Tully' even
More informationDoes Deduction really rest on a more secure epistemological footing than Induction?
Does Deduction really rest on a more secure epistemological footing than Induction? We argue that, if deduction is taken to at least include classical logic (CL, henceforth), justifying CL  and thus deduction
More information1. Introduction. Against GMR: The Incredulous Stare (Lewis 1986: 133 5).
Lecture 3 Modal Realism II James Openshaw 1. Introduction Against GMR: The Incredulous Stare (Lewis 1986: 133 5). Whatever else is true of them, today s views aim not to provoke the incredulous stare.
More informationIs the law of excluded middle a law of logic?
Is the law of excluded middle a law of logic? Introduction I will conclude that the intuitionist s attempt to rule out the law of excluded middle as a law of logic fails. They do so by appealing to harmony
More informationAn alternative understanding of interpretations: Incompatibility Semantics
An alternative understanding of interpretations: Incompatibility Semantics 1. In traditional (truththeoretic) semantics, interpretations serve to specify when statements are true and when they are false.
More informationA romp through the foothills of logic Session 3
A romp through the foothills of logic Session 3 It would be a good idea to watch the short podcast Understanding Truth Tables before attempting this podcast. (Slide 2) In the last session we learnt how
More informationMATH1061/MATH7861 Discrete Mathematics Semester 2, Lecture 5 Valid and Invalid Arguments. Learning Goals
MAH1061/MAH7861 Discrete Mathematics Semester 2, 2016 Learning Goals 1. Understand the meaning of necessary and sufficient conditions (carried over from Wednesday). 2. Understand the difference between
More informationTesting semantic sequents with truth tables
Testing semantic sequents with truth tables Marianne: Hi. I m Marianne Talbot and in this video we are going to look at testing semantic sequents with truth tables. (Slide 2) This video supplements Session
More informationLGCS 199DR: Independent Study in Pragmatics
LGCS 99DR: Independent Study in Pragmatics Jesse Harris & Meredith Landman September 0, 203 Last class, we discussed the difference between semantics and pragmatics: Semantics The study of the literal
More informationSituations in Which Disjunctive Syllogism Can Lead from True Premises to a False Conclusion
398 Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic Volume 38, Number 3, Summer 1997 Situations in Which Disjunctive Syllogism Can Lead from True Premises to a False Conclusion S. V. BHAVE Abstract Disjunctive Syllogism,
More informationModule 5. Knowledge Representation and Logic (Propositional Logic) Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
Module 5 Knowledge Representation and Logic (Propositional Logic) Lesson 12 Propositional Logic inference rules 5.5 Rules of Inference Here are some examples of sound rules of inference. Each can be shown
More informationAlso, in Argument #1 (Lecture 11, Slide 11), the inference from steps 2 and 3 to 4 is stated as:
by SALVATORE  5 September 2009, 10:44 PM I`m having difficulty understanding what steps to take in applying valid argument forms to do a proof. What determines which given premises one should select to
More informationChapter 9 Sentential Proofs
Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall, Stetson University Chapter 9 Sentential roofs 9.1 Introduction So far we have introduced three ways of assessing the validity of truthfunctional arguments.
More informationROBERT STALNAKER PRESUPPOSITIONS
ROBERT STALNAKER PRESUPPOSITIONS My aim is to sketch a general abstract account of the notion of presupposition, and to argue that the presupposition relation which linguists talk about should be explained
More informationA Primer on Logic Part 1: Preliminaries and Vocabulary. Jason Zarri. 1. An Easy $10.00? a 3 c 2. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
A Primer on Logic Part 1: Preliminaries and Vocabulary Jason Zarri 1. An Easy $10.00? Suppose someone were to bet you $10.00 that you would fail a seemingly simple test of your reasoning skills. Feeling
More informationRevisiting the Socrates Example
Section 1.6 Section Summary Valid Arguments Inference Rules for Propositional Logic Using Rules of Inference to Build Arguments Rules of Inference for Quantified Statements Building Arguments for Quantified
More informationLing 98a: The Meaning of Negation (Week 1)
Yimei Xiang yxiang@fas.harvard.edu 17 September 2013 1 What is negation? Negation in twovalued propositional logic Based on your understanding, select out the metaphors that best describe the meaning
More information2.1 Review. 2.2 Inference and justifications
Applied Logic Lecture 2: Evidence Semantics for Intuitionistic Propositional Logic Formal logic and evidence CS 4860 Fall 2012 Tuesday, August 28, 2012 2.1 Review The purpose of logic is to make reasoning
More informationCriteria of Identity
Philosophy 100 Introduction to Philosophy Section 002 (Johns) Criteria of Identity We saw that, according to Locke, you can t just point at two people and ask whether they re the same one, as the question
More informationPHIL 115: Philosophical Anthropology. I. Propositional Forms (in Stoic Logic) Lecture #4: Stoic Logic
HIL 115: hilosophical Anthropology Lecture #4: Stoic Logic Arguments from the Euthyphro: Meletus Argument (according to Socrates) [3ab] Argument: Socrates is a maker of gods; so, Socrates corrupts the
More informationPHI Introduction Lecture 4. An Overview of the Two Branches of Logic
PHI 103  Introduction Lecture 4 An Overview of the wo Branches of Logic he wo Branches of Logic Argument  at least two statements where one provides logical support for the other. I. Deduction  a conclusion
More informationPHILOSOPHY 102 INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC PRACTICE EXAM 1. W# Section (10 or 11) 4. T F The statements that compose a disjunction are called conjuncts.
PHILOSOPHY 102 INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC PRACTICE EXAM 1 W# Section (10 or 11) 1. True or False (5 points) Directions: Circle the letter next to the best answer. 1. T F All true statements are valid. 2. T
More informationGeneric truth and mixed conjunctions: some alternatives
Analysis Advance Access published June 15, 2009 Generic truth and mixed conjunctions: some alternatives AARON J. COTNOIR Christine Tappolet (2000) posed a problem for alethic pluralism: either deny the
More informationLecture 3 Arguments Jim Pryor What is an Argument? Jim Pryor Vocabulary Describing Arguments
Lecture 3 Arguments Jim Pryor What is an Argument? Jim Pryor Vocabulary Describing Arguments 1 Agenda 1. What is an Argument? 2. Evaluating Arguments 3. Validity 4. Soundness 5. Persuasive Arguments 6.
More informationWhat is an Argument? Validity vs. Soundess of Arguments
What is an Argument? An argument consists of a set of statements called premises that support a conclusion. Example: An argument for Cartesian Substance Dualism: 1. My essential nature is to be a thinking
More informationExercise Sets. KS Philosophical Logic: Modality, Conditionals Vagueness. Dirk Kindermann University of Graz July 2014
Exercise Sets KS Philosophical Logic: Modality, Conditionals Vagueness Dirk Kindermann University of Graz July 2014 1 Exercise Set 1 Propositional and Predicate Logic 1. Use Definition 1.1 (Handout I Propositional
More information1. Lukasiewicz s Logic
Bulletin of the Section of Logic Volume 29/3 (2000), pp. 115 124 Dale Jacquette AN INTERNAL DETERMINACY METATHEOREM FOR LUKASIEWICZ S AUSSAGENKALKÜLS Abstract An internal determinacy metatheorem is proved
More informationA Romp through the Foothills of Logic: Session 2
A Romp through the Foothills of Logic: Session 2 You might find it easier to understand this podcast if you first watch the short podcast Introducing Truth Tables. (Slide 2) Right, by the time we finish
More informationDay 3. Wednesday May 23, Learn the basic building blocks of proofs (specifically, direct proofs)
Day 3 Wednesday May 23, 2012 Objectives: Learn the basics of Propositional Logic Learn the basic building blocks of proofs (specifically, direct proofs) 1 Propositional Logic Today we introduce the concepts
More informationPhilosophy 1100: Introduction to Ethics. Critical Thinking Lecture 2. Background Material for the Exercise on Inference Indicators
Philosophy 1100: Introduction to Ethics Critical Thinking Lecture 2 Background Material for the Exercise on Inference Indicators InferenceIndicators and the Logical Structure of an Argument 1. The Idea
More informationArgumentation Module: Philosophy Lesson 7 What do we mean by argument? (Two meanings for the word.) A quarrel or a dispute, expressing a difference
1 2 3 4 5 6 Argumentation Module: Philosophy Lesson 7 What do we mean by argument? (Two meanings for the word.) A quarrel or a dispute, expressing a difference of opinion. Often heated. A statement of
More informationOverview of Today s Lecture
Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 Overview of Today s Lecture Music: Robin Trower, Daydream (King Biscuit Flower Hour concert, 1977) Administrative Stuff (lots of it) Course Website/Syllabus [i.e.,
More informationRecall. Validity: If the premises are true the conclusion must be true. Soundness. Valid; and. Premises are true
Recall Validity: If the premises are true the conclusion must be true Soundness Valid; and Premises are true Validity In order to determine if an argument is valid, we must evaluate all of the sets of
More informationCircumscribing Inconsistency
Circumscribing Inconsistency Philippe Besnard IRISA Campus de Beaulieu F35042 Rennes Cedex Torsten H. Schaub* Institut fur Informatik Universitat Potsdam, Postfach 60 15 53 D14415 Potsdam Abstract We
More informationIs Epistemic Probability Pascalian?
Is Epistemic Probability Pascalian? James B. Freeman Hunter College of The City University of New York ABSTRACT: What does it mean to say that if the premises of an argument are true, the conclusion is
More information[3.] Bertrand Russell. 1
[3.] Bertrand Russell. 1 [3.1.] Biographical Background. 1872: born in the city of Trellech, in the county of Monmouthshire, now part of Wales 2 One of his grandfathers was Lord John Russell, who twice
More informationA Judgmental Formulation of Modal Logic
A Judgmental Formulation of Modal Logic Sungwoo Park Pohang University of Science and Technology South Korea Estonian Theory Days Jan 30, 2009 Outline Study of logic Model theory vs Proof theory Classical
More informationKRISHNA KANTA HANDIQUI STATE OPEN UNIVERSITY Patgaon, Ranigate, Guwahati SEMESTER: 1 PHILOSOPHY PAPER : 1 LOGIC: 1 BLOCK: 2
GPH S1 01 KRISHNA KANTA HANDIQUI STATE OPEN UNIVERSITY Patgaon, Ranigate, Guwahati781017 SEMESTER: 1 PHILOSOPHY PAPER : 1 LOGIC: 1 BLOCK: 2 CONTENTS UNIT 6 : Modern analysis of proposition UNIT 7 : Square
More informationRUSSELL, NEGATIVE FACTS, AND ONTOLOGY* L. NATHAN OAKLANDERt SILVANO MIRACCHI
RUSSELL, NEGATIVE FACTS, AND ONTOLOGY* L. NATHAN OAKLANDERt University of MichiganFlint SILVANO MIRACCHI Beverly Hills, California Russell's introduction of negative facts to account for the truth of
More informationNorva Y S Lo Produced by Norva Y S Lo Edited by Andrew Brennan
CRITICAL THINKING Norva Y S Lo Produced by Norva Y S Lo Edited by Andrew Brennan LECTURE 4! Nondeductive Success: Statistical Syllogism, Inductive Generalization, Analogical Argument Summary In this week
More information9 Methods of Deduction
M09_COPI1396_13_SE_C09.QXD 10/19/07 3:46 AM Page 372 9 Methods of Deduction 9.1 Formal Proof of Validity 9.2 The Elementary Valid Argument Forms 9.3 Formal Proofs of Validity Exhibited 9.4 Constructing
More informationWorkbook Unit 3: Symbolizations
Workbook Unit 3: Symbolizations 1. Overview 2 2. Symbolization as an Art and as a Skill 3 3. A Variety of Symbolization Tricks 15 3.1. nplace Conjunctions and Disjunctions 15 3.2. Neither nor, Not both
More informationThis is an electronic version of a paper Journal of Philosophical Logic 43: , 2014.
This is an electronic version of a paper Journal of Philosophical Logic 43: 979997, 2014. The following passage occurs on p.994 of the published version: The invalidity of Antecedent Strengthening cannot
More information1/19/2011. Concept. Analysis
Analysis Breaking down an idea, concept, theory, etc. into its most basic parts in order to get a better understanding of its structure. This is necessary to evaluate the merits of the claim properly (is
More information5.6.1 Formal validity in categorical deductive arguments
Deductive arguments are commonly used in various kinds of academic writing. In order to be able to perform a critique of deductive arguments, we will need to understand their basic structure. As will be
More informationThe Relationship between the Truth Value of Premises and the Truth Value of Conclusions in Deductive Arguments
The Relationship between the Truth Value of Premises and the Truth Value of Conclusions in Deductive Arguments I. The Issue in Question This document addresses one single question: What are the relationships,
More informationTHE LARGER LOGICAL PICTURE
THE LARGER LOGICAL PICTURE 1. ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS In this paper, I am concerned to articulate a conceptual framework which accommodates speech acts, or language acts, as well as logical theories. I will
More informationVerificationism. PHIL September 27, 2011
Verificationism PHIL 83104 September 27, 2011 1. The critique of metaphysics... 1 2. Observation statements... 2 3. In principle verifiability... 3 4. Strong verifiability... 3 4.1. Conclusive verifiability
More informationSemantic defectiveness and the liar
Philos Stud (2013) 164:845 863 DOI 10.1007/s1109801299156 Semantic defectiveness and the liar Bradley ArmourGarb James A. Woodbridge Published online: 8 April 2012 Ó Springer Science+Business Media
More informationA R G U M E N T S I N A C T I O N
ARGUMENTS IN ACTION Descriptions: creates a textual/verbal account of what something is, was, or could be (shape, size, colour, etc.) Used to give you or your audience a mental picture of the world around
More information